Proceedings-DFI/EFFC 11th International Conference on Piling and Deep Foundations, 2014, Stockholm, Sweden, (DFI)
Innovations in the Design and Construction of Marine Foundations
Robert B. Bittner, Bittner-Shen Consulting Engineers, Inc., USA
Large diameter tubular piles offer significant advantages in terms of design performance and economy for major marine structures. This is particularly true for foundations of major overwater bridges in regions of high seismicity such as the west coast of North America. The use of large diameter piles in the range of 2 to 3 m diameter means that fewer piles are required, and the size and mass of the pile caps can be significantly reduced, thereby greatly reducing lateral load demand during seismic events. Another advantage of using larger diameter piles is increased pile stiffness that allows the pile caps to be located at or near the waterline rather than being positioned at or below the mud line. This elevating of the pile cap offers significant cost savings by eliminating the need for deep cofferdams. However, relocation of the pile cap creates new problems and opportunities in regard to the means and methods used to construct the pile cap. With the pile cap at depth, conventional steel sheet pile cofferdams with thick tremie seals are typically used to isolated the cap location and allow dewatering for construction of the cap. However with pile caps positioned up off the bottom, conventional bottom founded cofferdams are no longer cost efficient. Float-in or lift-in cofferdams have been developed to address the need for a more cost efficient method for cap construction. This paper describes the key features of the concept and provides three case history examples of its successful implementation.
|article #1917; publication #100 (IC-2014)|