Proceedings-DFI-India 2016: 6th Conference on Deep Foundation Technologies for Infrastructure Development in India, (DFI)
Characteristic Features of Deep Excavations in the Metropolis and the Probable Hazards
Prof. (Dr.) Sudhir Kumar Das
The exorbitant price of the land in the metropolis has restricted the horizontal expansion and compelled the owners, the developers and the engineers to opt for vertical expansion. This has resulted in the construction of high rises by extending floors of the existing buildings and developing the new ones for which deep excavation is a must. The multi-storied buildings up to a certain height can be founded on shallow depth if the soil beneath can withstand the load. If not, the soil can be stabilized by the latest improvement technology to change the properties of soil to cater the desired load of the superstructures. By such practice the cost and time of completion of the substructures can be reduced in comparison to the substructures needed for deep excavation. The necessity of deep excavation cannot be ignored to create housings, underground parking lots and the other public amenities for the urban migrants in the metropolis. Although most of the metropolis have underground mapping the developers, before starting excavation should be hundred percent sure about the alignment and depth of the utilities so that the excavators do not snap the same to bring cut in water supply, power lines, telephone lines etc, resulting in hue and cry in the neighborhoods of the metropolis due to no availability of the essential services The building/structures coming on the influence zones of the deep excavation should be monitored in all sequences of excavations. In case of building underground corridors for rail or road through open deep excavation under a traffic road the developers, before commencing excavation should shift/divert the dry and wet utilities coming on the way of excavation to suitable locations. The surface traffic need to be diverted either temporarily to an adjacent alternative road or allowed to pass over a decking built over the trench of excavation for the affected length of construction. The soil support system is necessary longitudinally on the two sides covering the width of trench for building corridors. In case of building substructures of flyovers built at different plots along the alignment of the flyover or a multi-storied complex built at an isolated plot, the soil support system would be necessary on all the sides covering the plot of construction. The material of construction of soil support depends on the depth, type of soil and the type of permanent structure to be developed. Probable geo-hazards inviting casualties in the deep excavation projects occur due to caving of soil, leakage of wet utilities, seepage through honey comb concrete surfaces, failure of pump used for dewatering etc. A detailed comprehensive planning, management and determination of the project authority is essential for marginalizing the casualties. These prevent unforeseen expenditure in mitigation and help to control the time and the cost over run of overall project. The engineer at site should be more a professional manager than an engineer at site. He should be conversant with the safety and environment rules and regulations applicable to deep underground projects.
|article #2461; publication #1020 (INDIA-2016)|