Proceedings of the 25th Annual Members' Conference and Eighth International Conference and Exposition, 2000, New York NY, (DFI)
History of Foundation Pile Driving Hammers in New York City, 1900 to 2000
James S. Graham PE, Lawrence F. Johnsen PE, John J. Jagello PE
Foundation pile driving hammers used in New York City in the past 100 years have been drop, steam, compressed air, diesel, and hydraulic. In 1992, the first hydraulic hammer in the New York City area was purchased by Norwalk Marine Contractors, Inc. from Junttan in Finland. It was bought because of its variable energy and ease of mobilization, not because of its higher transferred energy. Heller and Johnsen engineers instrumented hydraulic hammers on nine jobs. The measured transferred energy for the nine jobs was found to average approximately 80 percent. There is no clear consensus regarding the reasons for the hydraulic hammer being more efficient in delivering energy to the pile as compared to single-acting steam/air impact hammers. To minimize pile damage during installation, and to minimize footage overruns, an up-to-date version of the wave equation software that includes an efficiency value of 0.95 for hydraulic hammers is now used.
|article #878; publication #54 (AM-2000)|